شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِىْٓ اُنْزِلَ فِيْهِ الْقُرْاٰنُ هُدًى لِنَّاسِ وَ بَيِّنٰتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدٰى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَ مَنْ كَانَ مَرِيْضًا اَوْ عَلٰى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ اَيَّامٍ اُخَرَ يُرِيْدُاللهَ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَ لَا يُرِيْدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللهَ عَلٰى مَا هَدٰكُم وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُوْن
The month of Ramadan, in which the Quran was sent - the guidance for mankind, the direction and the clear criteria (to judge between right and wrong); so whoever among you witnesses this month, must fast for the (whole) month; and whoever is sick or on a journey, may fast the same number in other days; Allah desires ease for you and does not desire hardship for you - so that you complete the count (of fasts), and glorify Allah’s greatness for having guided you, and so that you may be grateful.
The Word Ramadan
The word Ramadan comes from the word رَمَضَا (Ramada) which means the rain before Spring. The rain before Spring clears the ground for the green to grow back again, because this month also washes and clears the heart of dirt, and sins it is called Ramadan.
The word Ramadan can also come from the word رمض (Ramad) which means to burn, because in this month a person is trying to erase or "burn" his bad deeds. (Tafseer e Kabeer)
Ramadan is also one of the names of Allah, that is why the Prophet stated, "Do not only say that Ramdan is here, but say that the Month of Ramadan is here."
There are 4 names that are mentioned for the month of Ramadan:
1) Month of Ramadan ماه رمضان
2) Month of Patience ماه صبر
3) Month of Goodness ماه مواسات
4) Month of Blessings ماه وسعت
The Specialty of the month of Ramadan
The way Friday is special over all the other days, that is how Ramadan is special over all the other months. People from all over the world go towards the Ka'bah for blessings, but the month of Ramadan comes towards the people. Other months have special days and special times of blessings, like Eid, or the tenth of Muharram, but the entire month of Ramadan is of blessings and mercy.
In this month every Nafl is rewarded as a Fard, and every Fard is rewarded 70 times more.
The person that passes away in this month is exempted from the questioning in the grave.
The name of only this month is mentioned in the Quran.
The word Ramadan has 5 letters, and this month has 5 special ways of worship:
3) Reading the Quran
5) Praying on the night of Shab e Qadr
Our Responsibilities in this Month
عن سلمان رضي الله عنه قال خطبنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في اخر يوم من شعبان فقال يا أيها الناس شهر جعل الله صيامه فريضة و قيام ليله تطوعا
Narrated by Hazrat Sulman Radi Allahu Anhu, the Prophet Sallal lahu alaihi wasallam spoke to his companions in the last days of Sha'ban about the month of Ramadan,
"Oh people! Allah has made fasting compulsory this month, and has made it beneficial to stand at night."
Narrated in Tirimzi, Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudri Radi Allahu Anhu said the Prophet Sallal lahu alaihi wasallam stated,
"When the first night of Ramadan arrives, the doors of the skies are opened, and not one is even closed until The month of Ramadan ends. For every Sajdah a person does, Allah writes for him 1500 rewards in return, and makes a palace for him in jannat. When a person a fasts in the month of Ramadan, Allah not only forgives his previous sins, but also the sins he will do in the future. 70,000 angels pray for the forgiveness of the person that fasts during the day."
It is narrated, that the person that fasts in the month of Ramadan, on the day of judgement Allah will order a feast for them. In the surroundings of نفسي نفسي these people will be enjoying the feast from paradise.
The person that fasts will enter from باب ريّان, the door especially made for the people who fast in Ramadan. The person that enters from this door in Jannat will never feel thirsty again. (Tafseer e Azizi)
It is said in Durratun Nasiheen, there was a person that didn't pray 5 times a day, but when the month of Ramadan arrived he would especially prepare for it by showering and wearing new clothes. He would also clean and decorate his house. He was questioned, "Why do you do this?" He replied, "This is the month of forgiveness, mercy and blessings. I hope that Allah will forgive my sins that I have done in the 11 months before because of this month." When he passed away, a person saw him in his dream and asked, "Did Allah have mercy on you?" He replied, "Allah forgave me because I used to prepare for the month of Ramadan."
Remember that reading Taraweeh is Sunnat e Mauqidah. The Prophet Sallal lahu alaihi wasallam said that the person that turns away from my Sunnah is not a part of my Ummah.
The Quran was revealed in this month. Muslims should at least recite the entire Quran once this month. An easy way to do that is to read 20 Ruku' every day, or read 4 Ruku' after every prayer.
Important events that happened in the month of Ramadan
1st Ramadan - the doors of Jannat are opened and the doors of Jahannam are closed. Shaitan is locked up.
3rd Ramadan - Sahaif were revealed on Hazrat Ibrahim Alahi Salam
4th Ramadan - Torah was revealed to Hazrat Musa Alaihi Salam
18th Ramadan - Zaboor was revealed to Hazrat Dawood Alaihi Salam
13th Ramadan - Injeel (bible) was revealed to Hazrat Isaa Alaihi Salam
27th Ramadan - Quran was revealed to the Prophet Sallal lahu alaihi wasallam
10th Ramadan - The victory of Makkah Mukarramah
17th Ramadan - the angels helped the Sahaba in the battle of Badr
17th Ramadan - Hazrat Ummul Momineen Hazrat Ayesha Radi Allahu Anha passed away
3rd Ramadan - Hazrat Ummul Momineen Hazrat Salma Radi Allahu Anha passed away
25th Ramadan - Sayyidah Umme Kulthoom Radi Allahu Anha passed away
3rd Ramadan - Hazrat Fatima Radi Allahu Anha passed away
21st Ramadan - Shahadat of Hazrat Ali Radi Allahu Anhu